Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Question: Write an essay on "Leading and Managing Organisational Change". Answer: Change Resistance This report reflects my personal opinion and the vast experience on number of issues relating to change. It also provides a reflection on resistance to the change and the impact on organisation. Forces that contribute to change can be External and Internal and these combine to form the change like Economic and political, Cultural and Social, Technological and New Leadership, New Mission, Conflict (Todnem ,2005). Resistance can be usually referred to as an inevitable response that arises with change and shall therefore exist within organization. This can occur at various organisational levels. Therefore it becomes the necessary action that needs to be taken by these individuals and also the groups when they presume that change which is happening poses a threat for them. It also can encourage healthy work discussions. Management looks at resistance as the end thing during process of change. In major cases it is likely that it will bring detrimental impact towards the whole organisational program. Hence organisations realised the advantages of team work and involvement of Leadership to overcome these barriers. It also encouraged understanding the ways in influencing Leader. To understand better we can take the example the technology which people were averse because of the complexities, but with leaders in the industry able to guide them through the process in understanding how simple it makes their work with little effort helped the industry to grow. Behavioural concepts Leadership After learning the behavioural approach helped to understand the positive and negative effects and the desired actions from management. The Behavioural concepts and theories of the leadership mainly focus on studying specific traits of the leader ( oran, Brightman, 2000)Two types of leaders Task Oriented Leaders mainly concentrate their behaviours on the organisational structure, the operating practices while looking to keep close control. They look at favouring behaviours which are in tune with Organising, with initiating, with clarifying and also with information gathering. People oriented leaders primarily focus on ensuring inner needs and concerns of people are met first. These leaders look at motivating the staff by focussing more on human relationship. They however manage to concentrate on the work and the results which these leaders achieve by different means. These Leaders with people concentration posses traits that are in tune with Listening, observing, encouraging, mentoring and also coaching. Through Psychodynamics, better known the dynamic psychology, in the broad aspect, is the approach towards the psychology which emphasizes the systematic study of the psychological forces that make of the human behaviour, the emotions, the feelings and their relation to early experience. A understanding is the behaviour of the salesman in the organisation where his reaction to the various achievements when he is rewarded and also at times he is unable to achieve his targets. The leadership approach underlying there to make the salesman motivated makes its impact. After motivation has personally witnessed Salesman in our organisation achieve double digit targets (Burnes, 2004). Teams /Groups are defined as number of people looking at completing the task together. Hence group identity is created. Largely people belong to Group membership by one way or other by nation, religion, sport etc. Therefore this Group membership influences the behaviour of individuals in different ways by providing a sense of identity and also security, helps develops a structure with including roles, establishing the norms and also expectations for members to conform, improves the output through the collective support which can result in also conflict with the other groups, communication of shared knowledge. I have seen myself taking pride in being associated with groups that provides me with recognition that is at my society, office or elsewhere. It creates the pressure to perform to achieve the groups norms which are rules about behaviour in the group that they set. Team work is a technique that organisations use to gain the benefits of the groups presence has on the individual behaviour. It affects the work in the organisation (Dessler, 2001). From my personal experience belong to a group which is having its feet on ground and are very practical oriented in life. From the organisations perspective have a team where we can take effective decisions, help each other to accomplish the tasks by helping each other. The above context also summarises the interdependence that myself experience which can be of the degree of Interdependence, pooled interdependence, sequential interdependence, and reciprocal interdependence depending on the various stages of operations and circumstances in life. Hence with understanding it is well understood that Team work enhances the end results. Dunbars and group norms This report reflects upon the personal views and the experience on issues relating to the Dunbars Number which are really a suggested cognitive limit on number of manpower along with those one really can maintain a positive social relationship. Its about relationship wherein an individual must know about each person and how they relate to every other (Hallinger, 2003). Therefore it is important to know the relationship and the limit to the number of individuals to work in the team. From my experience after undertaking a project we realised that too many people in that team were spoiling the project because of various issues that was because of motivation, proper coaching etc. Hence we downsized the number of people as it started fetching better results. This inspired me to have better leadership skills where effective communication is very vital. Having discussed task and relationship oriented leaders myself understood that it is better to maintain a relationship approach at the same time keeping the task on priority basis. Therefore it has to be combination of both as ultimately organisation grows if people within organisations grow. Hence it is vital to have group discussions (Beer, 2000). Having experience both a leader and also a follower these qualities are important for Leaders to be honest, inspiring, forward thinking and more so competent to lead while Followers need to be also honest, dependable, cooperative and also competent to perform the task. It is also important for Leaders to look at the influence where he should impact and also provide necessary freedom to the group. Hence he should Decide, Consult individually, and Consult the Group, Facilitate and then Delegate. Leadership traits After having understood and experienced it is these qualities like vision, strategy, decisions, challenges, teamwork, creativity, motivation and ambition are vital to work effectively in the organisation. It is therefore the very qualities that determine the job fitness for growth. It can also be the Type like realistic, investigative, social, conventional, enterprising and artistic with personal characteristics and their occupations which they suit to. Leaders behaviour towards the members can be in-group or out-group depending on his personality as I have experienced more of in-group in the various organisations worked providing Direction, Monitoring, Motivating, Support and also giving rewards ( Elving, 2005). It is important for leaders to have qualities that support change. The edgy catalyser to create change creates discomfort, visionary motivator energizes people by engagement, measured connector- sees the purpose and connectivity to help change, tenacious implementer who sets and plans deadlines and the needed progress to achieve, being a thoughtful type architect designs the strategies that lead to provide basis for change. Leadership Styles Having seen Leadership styles differ from person to person and also across organisations like Authoritarian, Delegative and Participative. Participative leaders bring positive environment, cooperative relationship, diversity that is valued, balance in participation, conflict management concepts, clear defined goals and roles, clear and also open communication methods, and finally effective use decision making capabilities. From my present experience in my organisation it is important be involved, take ownership and be committed to the job at hand (Peus et al 2009). Planned Unplanned change Unplanned change occurs because of lack of planning. Therefore it is vital to see the types and process of change like the planned, Unplanned, Evolutionary or Revolutionary. Its from the experience from my organisation to implements new technologies we faced this unfreezing, changing and freezing of the process and thereby helped its implementation (Crawford Nahmias, 2010). Leading change also reflects on the Leadership style, the flexibility in structure and the open organisation culture. We faced a lot of questions initially during the change and the organisation was encouraging to understand the concerns. Conclusion: Having completed the task and gaining a good and wide understanding regarding the very concept relating to change management and the leadership styles with its implications has been really worth and expect this study to help me in future to implement these areas of change in the various processes of the organisation that myself may work. This case study provides a valuable experience of the various tasks learnt by incorporating real life experiences. References Todnem By, R. (2005). Organisational change management: A critical review. Journal of Change Management, 5(4), 369-380. oran, J. W., Brightman, B. K. (2000). Leading organizational change. Journal of Workplace Learning, 12(2), 66-74. Burnes, B. (2004). Managing change: A strategic approach to organisational dynamics. Pearson Education. Chicago Dessler, G. (2001). Management: Leading People and Organizations in the 2131 Century. Hallinger, P. (2003). Leading educational change: Reflections on the practice of instructional and transformational leadership. Cambridge Journal of education, 33(3), 329-352. Beer, M. (2000). Breaking the code of change. Harvard Business Press. Elving, W. J. (2005). The role of communication in organisational change. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 10(2), 129-138. Peus, C., Frey, D., Gerkhardt, M., Fischer, P., Traut-Mattausch, E. (2009). Leading and managing organizational change initiatives. management revue, 158-175. Crawford, L., Nahmias, A. H. (2010). Competencies for managing change. International journal of project management, 28(4), 405-412.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
The Slave Community Slavery has existed among humanity since the beginning of time. It has shaped many nations throughout the vast lands of the earth. Arabs enslaved Europeans and later Europeans would enslave Africans. Europeans enslaved Africans and brought them to the Americas to work for them under brutal conditions on the plantation of the New World. This is where our story begins.Throughout this essay, I will discuss how and why African-Americans survived he institution of slavery as well as the impact that they had on the white Southerners, through my reading Of John W. Blearinesss book, The Slave Community. Cultural identity, Religion, guilt, the ability to adapt, and other things enabled to African Americans to survive the brutal institution of slavery as well as enabling them to have a profound impact on the white slave owning population in the South. African-Americans were able to adapt very well to their new conditions that they found themselves placed in, in the New World. In most cases, they adopted the culture, belief in God and language of the people who now controlled their fate, Africans enslaved in the Americas had to make the kind of adjustments the white slaves for life did in Africa: learning their captors language, adopting much of their culture, and accepting their God. Africans assimilated quickly into American society and way of life because of how influential the church was in the South. The church, although controlled by the white planters, were the biggest agent in support of slave rights, freedom, and humanity.Slaves were attracted to Christianity because it had similar life to that of their original beliefs and values. Africans were easily able to identify with Christianity from the get go, there were enough congruencies to allow the Africans to recognize and accept some Christian tenets and practices from the outset. Although, Africans were beginning to accept the ideas of Christianity, Christianity was still trying to figure out if slavery was a necessary commodity or a horrid evil.Until the late eighteenth-century, most religions in the South never questioned the morality of slavery but now people were asking those questions and here we see the beginnings of the abolitionist movement. During the early nineteenth-century many people were now arguing in favor of the slaves, even slaveholders themselves realized the sin they were committing. Kentucky slaveholder and irrepressible abolitionist Cassias M. Clay wrote to the New York Tribune in 1843 that slavery was the greatest evil that ever cursed a nation..It is clear that a lot Of the slave owners in the South knew what they were doing was wrong but never did anything about it because the gains were too lucrative. The fear of an abolitionist rebellion led he plantation owners to launch a massive propaganda campaign to convince the whites at home and abroad that slavery was a positive good. For now, they had quelled the abolitionist movement but they abolitionists had ingrained the belief that slavery was a sinful act and this idea was never forgotten. This guilt enabled the African-Americans to survive in their brutal world and began laying the foundations for freedom of slaves in the New World. The plantation was a place of work for the slaves but also the source of their greatest escape from the terrible day-to-day lives that they lived. In the lamination, the slaves were able to form groups, which allowed them to have a social life away from their masters. African cultural identity was greatly expressed when these groups would meet.The slaves grasp of their original culture separated him from that of his masters, The more his cultural forms differed from those of his master and the more they were immune from the control of whites, the more the slaves gained in personal autonomy and positive self-concepts. Typically, the slave owner did not care about the extra-curricular activities of his slaves as long as it did not affect the lamination. Slaves were able to perform recreational activities in these times away from the planta tion. Recreational activities brought all the slaves closer on an emotional level, Slaves spent their Sundays fishing, hunting, wrestling, running races. But it was the slave music that gave the slaves their greatest escape from the deprived lives that they lived. Their songs sang of their homeland, their slaves owners, their families, and their hope for the future. These meetings and displays cultural identity helped slaves survive the cruel restraints of slavery. The impact slaves had on the white slave owners is still visible in the modern society that we have in the South today.African culture crossed the Atlantic with the slaves that came from Africa and very quickly, the Southern States became Africanized. Slaves dealt so closely with the plantation owners family and affected them massively. Southern whites not only adapted their language and religion to that of the slaves but also adapted agricultural practices, sexual attitudes, rhythm of life, architecture, food and social relations to African patterns. Africans knew that they had to work at a slow pace to be most efficient because they were used to working in the tropical heats of Africa and the led to the slow and laid-back way of life in the South.African music contributed to the soul and blues music that we have here in the South and especially in Memphis. African ways of cooking soon spread across the tables of all plantation owners because they preferred the herbs and spices used in African style of cooking, to that of the bland British style of cooking, they also used them to prepare savory stews and rice dishes for heir owners quite unlike the lightly seasoned English dishes they had known. The greatest of all the aspects of African life, given to the South, was the African way of speaking.The Southern drawl came about because of the assimilation of African way of speaking into the American way of speaking. It is to this day, the clearest evidence of Fractionation we have in the United States. In conclusion, African-Americans have survived the institution of slavery because of a number of factors including the church, their strong ability to adapt, their abilities to hold onto their cultural past, and their willingness to fight through adversity.The United States we know today was built on the backs of the slaves. They were shipped there during the slave trade and it is a testament to the character of these people, who came thousands of miles from their homes to be a slave in a foreign country. They made it out the other end and it doing so left an ever-lasting impact on the lives of whites in the South, in terms of way of living and the cultural changes that they made.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Charisma CHARISMA Charisma is often used to refer to individuals who have the ?gift of grace.? A unique quality, charisma sets certain individuals above ordinary mortal so they are recognized as having exceptional powers. Found in everyday people and leaders of varied groups, charisma may lead to both good and evil. A successful charismatic leader doesn't necessarily have to be renowned by the whole world. An example of a leader that has a positive impact on our lives is a teacher. His or her charisma and enthusiasm helps students create their own visions for the future. Teachers educate, inspire and guide us to be responsible individuals. They open our minds to the unlimited options and opportunities to achieve our goals. Teachers hold all the ideals of being a charismatic leader. A charismatic person is able to interact with other people and bring forth his or her ideas and visions. He or she is capable of gaining ultimate respect and the favor of the majority with the quality of charisma. In the book ? Lord of the Flies,? a group of boys are stranded on an uninhabited island with no adult supervision. Ralph, one of the young boys, has natural qualities of leadership and therefore is elected as leader of the group. His charisma allows him to obtain this high position. Although this story is fiction, a great part of a successful leader's national success is his charisma. He wins the favor and loyalty of his people by creating an atmosphere where he displays confidence in himself and his followers. Charismatic leaders' movements are enthusiastic. They see well beyond their organization's current situation and develop an inspirational vision for the future that is different from the present and they are determined to carry out the vision. This type of leadership attracts people because they are deeply influenced by their leader's characteristics, abilities and visions. They pursue the leader's visions and build emotional attachment to him. They give him their loyalty and total support. Adolf Hitler and Franklin D. Roosevelt can both be classified as leaders with strong charisma even though they had different political aims. Nevertheless, they were both supported and praised by their followers. Plato said that a leader must have charisma to be successful in all his actions. Without it a leader cannot fulfill his job and be head of any type of organization. Charisma holds essential value to become a leader. Continuous training or force cannot obtain charisma, the ?gift of grace.? It is something mystical. It is of divine origin. Philosophy Essays
Sunday, November 24, 2019
To Kill A Mockingbird Essays (347 words) - To Kill A Mockingbird To Kill A Mockingbird njustice is a problem which everyone faces. Nobody likes to suffer from injustice, yet they do it to others. In the novel, " To Kill A Mockingbird " written by Harper Lee, there are three characters who suffer the most injustice. They are Atticus, Tom Robinson and Boo Radley. Atticus, a man with great wisdom, suffers from the fact that he had taken on a Negro case. He was constantly persecuted for his decision, which made him work even harder at winning the case. Even though his family was made fun of, he stuck with his choice and worked the hardest he could to ignore the threats and harassment. He did very well to ignore all the abuse and was greatly respected after the trial was over. Another person who suffered from injustice was Tom Robinson. He was charged with a crime he did not commit. His side of the story was not believed because he was black, which really shows the amount of injustice during the time the novel was set in. Through the whole trial, he did not retaliate at the white people, he did not get mad because he was improperly accused, he just showed the level of respect which everyone deserves. He handled the injustice with a manner reserved only for gentlemen, which is a good description of what he really was. The third person to suffer injustice in the novel was Boo Radley. Many accusations were claimed about him even though they were untrue. Just because he didn't leave his house, people began to think something was wrong. Boo was a man who was misunderstood and shouldn't of suffered any injustice. Boo did not handle the injustice because he didn't know about it. In conclusion, the person who deserves the deepest sympathy is Tom Robinson. He did nothing wrong but his crime was being nice to white people. This type of injustice is the worst because everyone puts up with it. Therefore, Atticus, Tom Robinson and Boo Radley suffered the most injustice in the novel.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Texas and The Death Penalty - Research Paper Example Being represented by the right lawyer determines the chances of providing adequate evidence to ascertain one's innocence or guiltiness. Opponents of death penalties argue that some people may end up being killed while they are innocent if the trial is not fair or if the accused personÃ¢â¬â¢s counsel lacks expertise. This has raised the issue of the appropriateness of death execution for punishing offenders since the trial process may result in conviction and murder of innocent individuals (Ã¢â¬Å"American Civil Liberties UnionÃ¢â¬ Web). Another issue surrounding the death penalty is diversity inconsistencies such as racial and gender. There have been arguments that the number of African Americans sentenced to death and executed is higher as compared to other races. Additionally, there are perceptions that cases where the victim is black rarely lead to death row while those involving white victims often lead to death rows. Such statistics have led to questions regarding the evenhandedness of the justice system when dealing with capital offenses. On the issue of diversity, there is a problem regarding the role of gender in determining the penalty. In most cases, capital offenses involving men are likely to lead to the death penalty as compared to those involving women. At times, this has created the notion that the justice system favors women suspects (Ã¢â¬Å"American Civil Liberties UnionÃ¢â¬ Web). Another issue surrounding the death penalty in Texas is whether the punishment serves its purpose. Legal punishment is designed to correct the perpetrator of the crime and or deter others from committing such crimes.Ã
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Violence - Essay Example The humans tend to fall in line with overall societal and normative outlook of the society so that they should not appear aliens to the local setup. The individual behaviors remain dependent on others from the beginning. The children are known to be dependent on their parents for fulfillment of their needs and wants. The interdependencies of a society often tend individuals to mold their personal behaviors according to the cultural norms of the community (Butler pp. 17). The community is primarily responsible for providing for the fundamental necessities of life. The societies are famous for exhibiting ruthless and inhumane behaviors towards those who do not conform to the acceptable cultural practices and therefore, they are often denied basic human rights. The human life is always under the profound influence and spell of the society and because of this reason, nobody does not have the full capacity and power to act alone. The sexual life of an individual is considered a very priva te matter of the person but they are informally regulated by the masses. The social constructivism theory states that individuals always observe the collective behavior of the society and attempt to embrace its norms and values. ... The human civilization is made up of communal relations and therefore, the individuals have to demonstrate conformation with societal norms in order to appear legitimate members of the certain community. However, the philosophical minorities initially gather their supporters to form institutions and once these centers are formalized then the followers of the neglected philosophy have the option to practice their beliefs in a controlled environment. The gay and lesbian communities formed centers where people can follow their sexual orientation in an isolated environment. The attempts are being made in order to promote gay and lesbian relations. But, the struggles are not proving to be fruitful in terms of attaining the goals in a short term perspective. The changes will take significantly long period of time in order to become an accepted practice in the culture of developed nations. The cultural norms are considered as the most notable obstacle and hindrance in the way of profound cu ltural acceptability of gay and lesbian relationships. The contemporary marital bonds evolved as people got more and more dissatisfied with conventional marriages. The intra-sex relations were falling apart and both the genders argued that their partners did not understand and respond to their deep seated needs and wants. The intersex relations then became popular because members of the same gender knew the art of pleasing their partners. The growing demand of sex toys is an evident proof that homosexuality is growing in all parts of the world. Nevertheless, it is very much imperative to note that lesbians and gays are famous for acting normal in the public so that they should not end up alienated in the society (Butler pp.20). They are however, famous for seeking their ideal
Sunday, November 17, 2019
HOW DOES INTERPROFESSIONAL WORKING IMPACT ON PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE CLINICAL SETTING - Essay Example The patient will be referred to as Mr. X to maintain confidentiality as stated in the nursing and midwifery code of professional conduct (2007). The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in Mr. X is based on his clinical experience and reflection of his involvement in the delivery of his care. The positive and negative aspects of inter-professional team will be discussed. Also, the author will use appropriate literature to examine how responsibility and accountability can be enhanced through inter-professional working. According to Alan (2007), Inter-professional working is defined as a practice where a number of professionals with different qualifications come together to meet a particular target. Some of their characteristics include direct service delivery, good professional relationship, collaboration and communal trust. Further, Matrix and Weeds (2007) describe Inter-professional working as a group of professionals with complementary skills, who are committed to a common purpose and hold themselves mutually accountable for its achievement. Inter-professional working includes collaborative practice, multi-professional working and team working. This is supported by Mickan and Rodger, (2000a) who describe teamwork as shared and agreed responsibilities, decision making and problem solving. The members of an inter-professional team communicate effectively in order to provide quality patient care. According to Braine (2006), clinical governance should be viewed as an opportunity to improve care delivery in the aftermath of some highly publicised failures in the NHS in the 1990s. The most notable of these was the Bristol Royal Infirmary Inquiry (2001) which accounts for 23 deaths of cardiac surgical paediatric patients. Other notable cases were the Royal Liverpool ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Inquiry (Alder Hey Inquiry), the case of the GP Harold Shipman (Smith 2005), and the trial of the nurse Beverly Allitt in 1993